PWM Controller with R/E

Last month I spent quite a lot of time on expansion modules for use with the ESP-12E I2C Base Card. While the system worked exceptionally well as a prototyping and firmware testing platform ( as originally intended ), I immediately saw that the physical size of everything ( base board, with the cards) would be a problem inside any enclosure, when used with a real-world project.

At the same time, I have an ongoing need to design and manufacture a device for a friend, that will have very limited space inside the enclosure due to other essential components.

I have thus decided to combine the functionality of two of the IO Expander cards into a more compact design, on a single PCB ( Which I plan to use to power and control an Air Assist blower on my desktop CNC/Laser cutter, as well as function as a next step prototype for my other project.

The PCB

Let us take a quick look at the PCB.

Starting from the top left, we have the Blower/Fan Header.
This supplies 12v DC to the Blower/Fan motor, as well as the PWM signal to control the speed. ( Level converted up from 5v DC to 12V, and then reduced to 3.3v ) This may seem strange.

Let me explain for some more clarity…
The PWM input on the Blower/Fan is internally pulled HIGH to 12v ( by the motor driver circuitry – I can not change that, as it is a commercial unit.) The datasheet however calls for a 0v to 3.3v PWM signal to control the speed.

There is also a further input from the fan, which is a pulsed speed indicator (Fan RPM). This signal is 5v.

Next to that header, is a UART Header, with Rx, Tx and DTR signals, with a ground. I do no longer add USB-to-UART chips to my designs because they are not used a lot, take up unnecessary space, and I tend to program with ICSP anyway.

On the right of that, (Red/Blue/Yellow Header) are 5v, Gnd and 6 Analog inputs(A0-A3, A6,A7) [A4 and A5 being used for I2C]

The ICSP programming header is below that,
with a jumper to select PCF8574 interrupt on Pin D2 or not

This is followed by 6 GPIO (P2-P7) from the IO Expander, and
additional GPIO (D10, D11, D12, D13) , as well as (D7,D8,D9) [To be used with a Rotary Encoder]

Another 6way Ground header, as well as the 12v input (red), follows.

Finally, we have J1 and J2, which will switch 12v through BSS138 Mosfets to control static speed 12v cooling Fans (Only one of these is PWM capable)


The 2 Relays are optically isolated from the controller and mains isolation cutouts are provided to further keep DC and AC voltages well away from each other. [ they really don’t play well together, don’t they ?]

This wraps up the quick PCB description.

Schematic

The Schematic is below, along with a download link ( zip format, with PNG image files)

Some more pictures

I use stencils with almost all of my SMD assembly. It saves a lot of time, makes for even solder paste application, and prevents the mess associated with applying solder paste with a syringe, or even worse a skewer-stick or something similar. They do cost extra though, but I find it well worthwhile in comparison to the mess and time that they save.

Manufacturing

Over the past eight years, PCBWay has continuously upgraded their MANUFACTURING plants and equipment to meet higher quality requirements, and now THEY also provide OEM services to build your products from ideas to mass production and access to the market.


The PCB for this project has been manufactured at PCBWay.
Please consider supporting them if you would like your own copy of this PCB, or if you have any PCB of your own that you need to have manufactured.

PCBWay

If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5 USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

I2C IO Card for ESP-12E I2C Base Card

The I2C IO Card for ESP-12E I2C Base Card is another expander card for the ESP-12E I2C Base Card Project. This PCB is an address-selectable I2C module with two relays and six (6) GPIO pins, all driven from a single PCF8574 running at 3v. The relays are optically isolated, and generous mains isolation cutouts were provided to reduce the possibility of mains voltage tracking. A jumper to enable/disable the i2c pullup-resistors is also provided on the PCB.

The relays are powered from a single LDO regulator, accepting 12v DC from the 2x20pin female header on the bottom of the card. 3.3v and ground should also be applied to the card at the 2x20pin header.

It is worth mentioning that this circuit does not contain level converting circuitry and that the i2c bus thus runs at 3.3v to be compatible with ESP chips.

It is possible to use the card with other processors if the appropriate level converters are used on the i2c bus.

The Schematic

Manufacturing the PCB


Over the past eight years, PCBWay has continuously upgraded their MANUFACTURING plants and equipment to meet higher quality requirements, and now THEY also provide OEM services to build your products from ideas to mass production and access to the market.


The PCB for this project has been manufactured at PCBWay.
Please consider supporting them if you would like your own copy of this PCB, or if you have any PCB of your own that you need to have manufactured.

PCBWay

If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5 USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

ATMega 328P Based PWM controller Card

As part of my recent ESP-12E I2C Base Board project, I designed an ATMega 328P Based PWM controller card, that can be used as an add-on card with the existing project, or standalone as a custom Arduino Nano compatible development board.

What is on the PCB?

The PWM controller card contains standard Arduino Nano circuitry running at 16MHz, without the USB to Serial converter, as well as a 3v to 5v level converter on the I2C port ( A4 and A5 ), as well as another 12v to 5v level converter, with a build in resistor-divider circuit, used to drive a 12v blower with 3.3v PWM control circuitry.

All analog inputs are broken out to make attaching additional sensors easier.

All the other unused GPIO pins are also broken out, either directly to headers on the PCB (D6~,D7,D8,D9~), D11,D12,D12 (ISCP Header) and D3 ( Marked RPM on the Fan Header)

Most of these pins are also additionally broken out onto the 2x20p female header at the bottom of the card ( See schematic for more details)

The board is designed to be powered from 12v DC (via the VIN pins on the 2x20p header) which is internally regulated down to 5v via an LDO voltage regulator.


External 3.3v should also be supplied to the 2x20Pin header to enable the I2C level converters on the same header. I2C is not directly broken out onto the PCB in this version of the PCB.

A reset button, and power led, as well as the standard led on D13 is also provided.

Manufacturing the PCB


Over the past eight years, PCBWay has continuously upgraded their MANUFACTURING plants and equipment to meet higher quality requirements, and now THEY also provide OEM services to build your products from ideas to mass production and access to the market.


The PCB for this project has been manufactured at PCBWay.
Please consider supporting them if you would like your own copy of this PCB, or if you have any PCB of your own that you need to have manufactured.

PCBWay

If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5 USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

ESP-12E I2C Base Card

As a follow-up on the ESP-12E Card, today we will look at the prototype base card that this was designed to slot into – The ESP-12E I2c Base Card.

Initial Features ( To be expanded in future versions )

4 x 40Pin Expansion slots, with access to 12v, 3.3v and Gnd on each slot.
2 x “IRQ” pins per slot ( serviced by a single PCF8574 )
I2C bus access on each slot (3.3v )
UART Header
Reset and Flash Header
GPIO Header ( Direct access to the ESP-12E GPIO Pins )
Analog Input Header (a Single input – A0, as per ESP-12E limitation)
Buck Converter Power Supply Module, capable of up to 2A of current

ESP-12E I2C Base Card – Top view

The Schematic

Schematic

The PCB – some pictures

ESP 12-E Card with Base Board

Manufacturing the PCB


Over the past eight years, PCBWay has continuously upgraded their MANUFACTURING plants and equipment to meet higher quality requirements, and now THEY also provide OEM services to build your products from ideas to mass production and access to the market.


The PCB for this project has been manufactured at PCBWay.
Please consider supporting them if you would like your own copy of this PCB, or if you have any PCB of your own that you need to have manufactured.

PCBWay

If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5 USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

A breadboard friendly MCP23017

I2C port extenders or expanders are extremely useful devices, and I use quite a lot of them in my projects. My go-to device is definitely the PCF8574, mainly because it is sort of “breadboard friendly”. The MCP23017, with the existing breakouts available locally, are not. I have thus decided to design my own version of a breadboard friendly MCP23017 breakout board.

The Breakout Module PCB and its features

A breadboard friendly MCP23017 breakout board – Front
a breadboard friendly MCP23017 breakout board – Back

While this was definitely one of my easier projects, It still took a bit of time to get it just right and add some essential components and features directly onto the PCB.

The main features of this breakout:
– DIP12 Layout – with all pins broken out, address pins to jumper headers…
– Proper decoupling capacitors, as close as possible to the MCP23017 chip.
I had to make use of the back layer of the PCB to do this, not exactly ideal, but with proper power and ground planes, and nice thick tracks, I believe they will be just fine.

– Address selector jumpers – The breakouts that are available locally, do not have these.
– Breadboard friendly layout – 33.020mm x 20.320mm [board size], with 15.240mm vertical spacing between the rows of pins, ensures that you can easily fit it onto your breadboard, while still having space to add jumper wires to the pins. Horizontal pin spacing is standard 2.45mm.

The Schematic

The schematic is plain and simple. A few points to note though:
– The address selection header, as well as the io pin headers are not shown on the schematic.
– I2C pullup resistors are set at 1k but can be replaced with more suitable values as required in your circuit

Using the breakout

I have previously written two very detailed articles on using this chip. They are linked below:
Using the MCP23017 with the standard Wire.h library
Using the MCP23017 with the Adafruit MCP23017 library

Manufacturing the PCB

The PCB for this project is currently on its way from China, after having been manufactured at PCBWay.
Please consider supporting them if you would like your own copy of this PCB, or if you have any PCB of your own that you need to be manufactured.

PCBWay

If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

I2C IO Module with 4 Relay Outputs and 4 Galvanic Isolated Inputs

Sometimes we need extra Inputs or Outputs on a device, or for use with a project. To implement it properly we also need a lot of additional electronic components to properly isolate these inputs and outputs, with the signals they switch, from our own project, because, let us be real, electronics and electrical devices in the real world do not all work with Arduino or ESP32/ESP8266 save voltages ( 5v and 3.3v ).

I will also tell you about a very special deal to get PCBs of your own made for only one (1) USD ( Including shipping with DHL )! No, I am not joking, and I am not crazy either… More on that later in the post…


It is thus extremely important to have a module that can effectively interface with inputs of 5.5v up to 32v DC ( optically Isolated up to 3000v ), and relay outputs, also optically isolated at 3000v. ( Note that the optical isolation voltage does not mean you can input that voltage level into the chip! It means that it can isolate the electronics on the safe side of the isolator from a voltage spike of up to that voltage!).

I also love using I2C, as it allows me to add modules onto an existing data bus while using only 2 GPIO lines on the MCU!

The module I am presenting to you today was designed to be operated from 5v DC. That includes the I2C data lines (SDA and SCL). If you need to interface to a 3.3v microprocessor, like an ESP32 or ESP8266, or even the new RP2040 or an STM32, you need to use a logic level converter.

The PCB uses the popular PCF8574 8 channel IO expander, which is extremely easy to use, and where you can connect up to 8 devices in a chain ( 16 if you use the PCF8574AT variant as well.. Meaning eight of each variant) This surely adds up to quite a lot of IO lines at a cost of only 2 GPIO on your MCU!

The Circuit diagram is below, and I will discuss each part briefly.

Schematic – Page 1

This is the Galvanic Isolated Input schematic. Each input operates at a voltage of 5.5v to 32v DC. Complete Galvanic Isolation between the Module and the remote input is in effect. Please note that you have to supply a remote ground from the device that provides the input. DO NOT connect the PCB Module ground to an isolated ground pin. This may still work but renders the galvanic Isolation for that input completely useless.


Relay Driver Schematic

This is the Relay driver schematic. Each relay output is driven through an optocoupler, as well as a transistor. Although this arrangement does not provide complete galvanic Isolation of the relay coil, it does protect your MCU from any voltage spikes caused by back-emf when the relay is de-energised. The Relay contacts themselves, being magnetically actuated by the coil, are in themselves Galvanically Isolated from the rest of the PCB.

I2C Control Schematic

Finally, we have the I2C IO Expander schematic, with a 5v LDO regulator, capable of providing up to 600mA of current to the PCB. The PCF8574 Chip’s address is selectable with DipSwitch SW1 so that you can use multiple PCBs at the same time if you should choose to do so. The only note on that is that you should not connect the 5v lines of each individual PCB together. You should also only connect the GND and SDA, SCL lines back to the MCU.

Raw PCB Layout

Earlier on in the post, I promised to tell you about a very special deal…

Well, here it is, as well as some details about the sponsor of this very exciting deal…

PCBPartner.com is owned and operated by Kinji Group, which was established in 1997. We have over 20 years of experience in PCB manufacturing, PCB design, component manufacturing and distribution, PCB assembly and PCB cam software development.

While Kinji Group has 3 PCB factories in China, we have also developed strategic partnerships with more than 15 other factories around Asia. We, therefore, have a large group of specialists in PCB manufacturing, quality control, technical support and part sourcing to support your innovative ideas and products.

Our over 500 employees are spread across 8 branches in Mainland China (Shenzhen, Dongguan, Shanghai, Wuxi, Chengdu, Xiamen), Hong Kong SAR, and Taiwan. And we’re still growing!


We’re confident once you try us out, we’ll become your PCB Partner. And if not? Well, you’ll have scored some free PCB! So why not take us for a spin, you’ve got nothing to lose.

We, MakerIoT2020.com, have decided to give it a go and send this particular PCB to PCBPartner.com for manufacturing. So far, while we are still waiting to receive the PCB, ( Weekends happen 🙂 ), We are very happy with the ease of use of the online ordering system provided.

We would also like to point out that this special order will only be available until the end of March 2022,
as well as that there are a few conditions:

Promotion ends  March 31st 2022
Each new customer can enjoy free PCB on their first order
This promotion applies to
1-2 layers of FR4 PCB, up to 100x100mm, 10pcs, with Green Solder Mask
4 layer of FR4 PCB, up to 50x50mm, 10pcs, with Green Solder Mask
1 layer Aluminum PCB, up to 100x100mm, 10pcs
This PCB promotion cannot be used with other discounts or other promotional activities



For a full list of conditions, and countries that may participate in this offer, please click on the link here

Let us have a look at the entire ordering process..

Once you click on the PCBPartner.com link, you will be taken to their website, where you should sign up, which is free and easy… We used our Google.com account details and were ready to order in seconds…

PCBPartner Start Page

You can now Login with your new credentials ( after registering using this special link ). Then click on the FR4 button to start the order process…

FR4 PBC Quote Form – Before uploading your Gerber Files

Enter the specific details for the manufacturing of your PCB, and upload your Gerber files.

After uploading your Gerber Files.

Continue selecting options for your PCB order…
Make sure to select DHL shipping, to take advantage of the special 1USD option, and click on the ADD to Cart Button…

Quote added to your shopping cart.

You will now get a message that your enquiry has been submitted successfully.

Click on the “Under review” button, to see your quote status… In my case, it took about 5 minutes for the review to pass, and be able to checkout and pay for the order…

PCB order under review

Once the review has passed, you will see a pending payment,

Payment Pending

You may now click on the “Proceed to Payment” option

Add your shipping address, and choose your payment option.

At this moment in time, only two payment options are supported, Paypal ( as well as Debit and Credit cards) and Direct Bank Transfer. I believe more options will be made available in future..
Checkout with Paypal

In my case, I chose Paypal and paid by Debit card.

Enter your card details
After Payment.

After payment was made successfully, you can also check on the status of your order…

Review your order status

You can also review your order at any stage before or after payment, as well as get progress reports of the manufacturing process.

PCB Order Status.

In conclusion, I would like to say that it was quite easy to order and make payment. The Website is easy to use, and everything is clear and easy to understand. The PCB was well manufactured and seems to be quite good quality

IO Shield for LoRa Base Module

INPUT And Monitor Shield for LoRa Base Module

Introduction

This is a straightforward project compared to my usual PCB projects. It is one of a series of designs towards completing my LoRa monitoring system, that I plan to use on the farm to monitor various areas, such as intrusion detection, battery levels etc.

The shield was designed to fit on top of the first LoRa Base Module. It was designed to allow easy, neat connections to Infrared Beam sensors, XYC-WB-DC Motion Detector, as well as to monitor the battery levels at the Solar power inverter (the farm is completely off-grid).

The Motion Sensor provides a +3v signal that goes high on motion detection, while the Infrared Beam Sensor provides a relay contact that can be used to provide a similar voltage signal. As I prefer to use pull-up logic on my inputs, I decided to implement a simple transistor circuit where the input will switch the base of the transistor, which in turn will pull the input to signal ground when switched on. This circuit uses the S8050 transistor, with the base pulled down to signal ground via a 10k resistor to prevent floating, and a current limiting resistor of 1k to 1k8 on the base. The collector, as well as the D7 and D8 GPIO pins on the LoRa Base Module, is pulled High to Vcc5v via a 10k resistor.

Voltage monitoring is done with the ADC on the LoRa Base Module, with each of the 4 battery levels ( 12v, 24v,36v, and 56v) being connected to the relevant ADC channel via a resister-divider network to lower the respective voltage to a level between 0 and 5v. ( This was done as the ADC on the ATMEGA328p can only handle a maximum voltage of 5.0v )

The resistors were chosen to give a slightly bigger input voltage range, to accommodate for fluctuations from the solar charger ( It can sometimes go up to 65v on a very bright sunny day ). I decided to not add any current limiting resistors directly onto the PCB, as they are definitely going to be bulky. They will instead be attached externally, to suitable heatsinks, etc…

As this PBC is still in the prototype stage, and my LoRa Monitoring device will definitely go through quite a few modifications in future, I provided access to all unused GPIO pins via separate headers on the shield. Most notably the SPI Header, used for programming the ATMEGA328P MCU, or connecting other SPI devices ( I am working on a CAN bus addon for the device, to save on the number of physical radio nodes that needs to be installed), The UART Header, as well as I2C, A6, A7 and additional Digital IO Pins (D3~, D4, D5~).

In the photo above you will notice an additional header on the UART pins, This was added to assist me with debugging on the logic analyser, as I had a slight issue with waking up the ATMEGA328P, and getting it to send events via LoRa. It would wake up, print status messages through the UART, but never do the actual LoRa part! That has now been fixed, and the header removed…

The schematic diagram for the shield is below. As you will see, it is very uncomplicated indeed.

Software and Libraries

The LoRa Base Module has been designed to use the LoRa Library from Sandeep Mistry. Further versions of this PCB will also directly support the RadioLib Library from JGromes.

A reminder :

The RA-02 Module (SX1278) connections to the ATMEGA328p is as follows:

NSS to D10 (CE)

MOSI to D11 (MOSI)

MISO to D12 (MISO)

SCK to D13 (SCK)

RESET to D9

DIO0 to D2 ( We need a hardware Interrupt pin ).

DIO1 to DIO5 was not broken out on the current version of the LoRa Base Module

There is also no direct access to pins D10, D9 and D2 either on the LoRa Base Module or on the Input and Monitor Shield.

If you do decide to hack the device and add access to any of the non broken out pins, please remember to use a logic level converter between the ATMEGA328 and the SX1278, as they operate at different voltages, and the SX1278 is not 5v tolerant on any of the IO Pins!

You can order this shield from PCBWay by clicking here

This PCB was manufactured at PCBWAY. The Gerber files and BOM, as well as all the schematics, will soon be available as a shared project on their website. If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

Sx127x-Ra-02-Test-Module with ATMEGA328P-AU

SX127x LoRa/FSK/OOK Module with LiPo battery-backup

SX127x LoRa/FSK/OOK Prototype Radio Board

I recently had a requirement to do some automation/telemetry on the farm. Things went missing, unauthorised persons were trespassing on the property, helping themselves to eggs, chickens, ducks and produce. Something had to be done, and as there is nobody sleeping there at night, it had to be possible to get remote status updates in real-time.

The farm is also completely off-grid, with solar-powered inverters taking care of all the water and electricity needs. Power usage monitoring could thus be a great help as well…

The idea is as follows:

Have a central control station, with various remote devices to do intrusion detection, control lights and water pumps, as well as monitor the battery levels of the inverter and solar-panel system. As the area is quite large, having to pull in electrical cabling will not be feasible, nor could the inverter handle all of that.

I decided to use the RA-02 LoRa/FSK/OOK module, on a custom PCB, but with various different PCB modifications, to take care of each stage of the project. The PCB that I will present today will be mainly used as the control unit, but it could also be a remote station, depending on what options are needed.

The ATMEGA328P-AU MCU is used as the main processor on each board, with the MH-CD42 Boost Converter/LiPo battery charger module taking care of power supply requirements. This module can source up to 2A at 5.0v, More than adequate for my needs. The ATMEGA328P will be put into sleep mode, to wake on interrupt to respond to events as needed ( To help save power ). Power usage of the circuit is around 50mA in standby ( NOT SLEEP MODE ), and with a peak of 100mA on a LoRa Transmit or Receive event.

The RA-02 Module did however present some challenges, as it is a 3.3v device, with non-5v capable IO lines. This made it necessary to include a 3.3v LDO regulator, as well as logic level converting circuitry onto the PCB. To allow for the most flexibility, all DIOs on the RA-02 was also broken out via level converters, in addition to the required SPI pins ( MOSI, MISO, CE and SCK ). This amount to a total of 11 level converters onboard.

I chose the MH-CD42 Power module for the reason that it can supply current at the same time as charging the LiPo battery (in my case, I used a 18650 cell). This will help greatly, as 220v inverter power is available during the day to charge the batteries.

PCB fitted to enclosure

The PCB can be ordered at PCBWay by clicking here
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screenshot-from-2021-07-22-18-45-42.png

Another challenge was definitely the enclosure. I found some really nice enclosures online, but the mounting holes were located in a very particular pattern, making it necessary to do some very careful measuring to get the PCB to fit exactly. The enclosure also has space to accept the other PCB modules, like the USER Control panel, and other sensor devices as needed. PCBWay did a great job at manufacturing the PCB so as to fit exactly. I must admit that I had quite a few tense moments between sending the PCB off to manufacturing and receiving it, as to whether my measurements were actually accurate, and if the PCB would fit as I imagined…

As you can see in the picture above, it turned out perfectly.

The Circuit diagram is basically a standard Arduino Nano ( I needed access to all of the ADC pins ),

Connections to the RA-02 module is as follows:

RA-02ATMEGA328P
MOSI D11
MISO D12
SCK D13
CE D10
RESET D9
DIO0 D2 ( We need a hardware interrupt pin here )
DIO1 D3 ( Hardware Interrupt, enabled through jumper)
DIO2D5 ( Enabled through a jumper)
DIO3 to DIO 5 Not connected, available on a breakout header
Connections between Ra-02 (SX127x) and ATMEGA328P – Note that all IO Lines are connected through level converters 5v <-> 3.3v

On the ATMEGA328, the following pins are broken out into headers:

D3 can be connected to RA-02 with a jumper
D4
D5 can be connected to RA-02 with a jumper
D6
D7
D8
D13 ( SCK ) Broken out as a 5v logic pin
D12 ( MISO ) 5v logic pin
D11 ( MOSI ) 5v logic pin
A3,A6,A7 ADC Pins ( A0, A1, A2 is used internally to monitor VIN, VCC5v and VCC3v )
A0 = Vcc3v A1 = Vcc5v A2 = VIN
SCLI2C SCL pin OR A5
(I2C pins are at 5v logic levels )
SDA I2C SDA pin OR A4
(I2C pins are at 5v logic levels )
RESET
DTR ( connected through a 100nf Cap to Reset, used for serial uploading firmware )
D0 ( RxD ) UART Rx Pin ( 5v logic )
D1 ( TxD ) UART Tx Pin ( 5v logic )
ATMEGA328P breakout pins. All pins are at 5v logic level

The ATMEGA328P is clocked at 16Mhz through an external crystal.

3v, 5v and GND pins were broken out at two opposite corners of the PCB to allow easy connection of additional devices/ sensors as needed.

Powering the PCB

The PCB can be ordered at PCBWay by clicking here

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screenshot-from-2021-07-22-18-45-42.png

The MH-CD42 module has the capability to power a load while charging the LiPo battery. This makes it possible to do a few interesting things while supplying power to this particular PCB.

The board can be powered directly from a 5v header pin ( NOT from the DC1 input ). In this mode, a LiPo battery is not required.

5v will be directly supplied to the processor, as well as the 3.3v LDO regulator, allowing the RA-02 module to function as well.

PLEASE NOTE: THERE ARE NO 5v REGULATION – MAKE SURE YOU SUPPLY REGULATED 5v

Installing the MH-CD42 module will add the option of charging a 3.3v 18650 Lipo battery, as well as powering the board at the same time. You need to supply power through the DC plug to make use of this function. This mode is also a miniature uninterruptible power supply, with the 3.3v LiPo battery immediately taking over should the main DC input fail.

NOTE: The MH-CD42 can only accept up to 5.5v MAXIMUM as input!

Software:

The PCB can be used with LoRa libraries from Sandeep Mistry OR JGromes/RadioLib ( If you want to do FSK/OOK or other advanced stuff like LoRa of FHSS)

Sandeep Mistry LoRa Module
JGROMES/RADIOLIB

Both libraries have extensive examples showing how to use them. As our use case will definitely differ, I will not have any example here at this stage. I will add one later after the entire project is completed, with all the relevant modules.

The PCB can be ordered at PCBWay by clicking here

This PCB was manufactured at PCBWAY. The Gerber files and BOM, as well as all the schematics, will soon be available as a shared project on their website. If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.



Port Extender Card for the MCU-8266-12E

Port Extender Card for the MCU-8266-12E IoT Controller

Introduction

After quite a few experiments, and playing with a lot of ideas, we have finally produced and tested an almost final prototype for the MCU-8266-12E IoT Controller Port Extender Card. While the baseboard already has quite a lot of free GPIO pins for additional sensors and devices, It did however have quite a few issues, namely a lack of sufficient Power outputs, difficulty access to the I2C bus, as well as only 2 relay outputs. Granted that you do have access to unused pins on the PCF8574 Port Extender, We nonetheless decided that an add-on card would definitely make sense to allow this device to really be more useable.

While looking at various ideas for this card, the most flexible seemed to be the APE Protocol device as documented in ESPHome. They used a standard Arduino board for that, but we decided that, after testing it with an Arduino Nano, since it seems to work well, let us just design a dedicated PCB. It also looks much better as well 🙂

Some Features (Aside from being a fully functional Arduino clone as well)

1). Dedicated LDO Regulators for 5v and 3.3v (800mA each), with jumpers to switch them on or off (receive power only from the IoT Motherboard).
2.) Dedicated Logic Level Converter on the I2C Bus ( This is sort of very much needed 🙂 The Atmega 328P-AU is running at 5v on this device, to enable it to run at 16Mhz.. and the ESP8266 on the Motherboard is a 3.3v device..

There are also 3x 3.3V I2C Headers, complete with 3.3v and Ground, as well as a single 5v I2C header
3). 8 Analog Inputs ( While practically you can only use 6 of these if you use I2C )
4). Voltage Divider provided on A0 to measure VIN ( to be safe, we calculated the resistors for 22v)
5). 100R current limiting resistor on A1 and A2, to measure 5v and 3.3v as well…
Analog inputs A0, A1 and A2 can be switched back to normal operation by changing the jumper at J2,J3 or J4 from On to Off.
6). 12 Digital Inputs/Outputs (14 if you use D0 and D1 as well), as well as a Jumper to remove the LED on D13.
7). Full access to the PCF8574 and ESP8266 Pins from the motherboard below.

Pictures of the PCB

Circuit Diagram

ATMega328P-AU Circuit diagram with LDO Regulators, headers and supporting circuitry.
Analog measuring circuitry, level converters and supporting circuitry and headers

Uploading Code to the ATMega328P

Uploading code to the device requires the use of either an ISCP programmer ( Arduino as ISP works well ) or in the case of a pre-boot loaded chip, a USB-to-Serial converter. We did not find it necessary to add a dedicated USB-to-Serial converter onto the PCB. It is quite easy enough to do any flashing with the tools mentioned above.


Make sure that the PCB is not stacked when doing this. ( This will prevent excessive current use of other components when you supply 5v to the PE card.


Procedure to upload using ICSP

During assembly, you are required to solder a single 90-degree bend pin header on the bottom side of the PCB, in the same hole as the board side edge of the RESET push-button. This will serve as the RESET Pin for the ISCP. Other connections are as follows:

H2 Header <- > ICSP Programmer
MOSI (E11~) – MOSI ( or Pin 11 on Arduino as ISP )
MISO (E12 ) – MISO ( or Pin 12 on Arduino as ISP )
SCK (E13) – D13 (or Pin 13 on Arduino as ISP )
RESET – D10 (or Pin 10 on Arduino as ISP )

5v and Ground from Arduino as ISP or ISCP Programmer to any 5v and ground pin on the PE Card

Please note the description above for assembly of the RESET pin header



Procedure to upload using USB-to-Serial converter

H1 Header

E0/Rx <- to Tx of USB-to-Serial converter
E1/Tx -> to Rx of USB-to-Serial converter

H2 Header

DTR <-> to DTR of USB-to-Serial converter [ This connection is needed for successful uploading. Don’t leave it out ]


5v and Ground from the USB-to-Serial converter to any 5v and ground pin on the PE Card


Testing with ESPHome APE protocol and the MCU-8266-12E IoT controller

The following Arduino Sketch needs to be uploaded to the device.
It will allow the device to function as a custom I2C device. Feel free to change the I2C address in the sketch as you choose, but remember to use the same address in your ESPHome YAML configuration file

/*
Ports:
  0 0 .. 13 13
  A0: 14, A1: 15, A2: 16, A3: 17: A4: 18: A5: 19: A6: 20, A7: 21
  port bits: 5 ... 0..32
  0:   0: 00000
  1:   1: 00001
  A7: 21: 10101
*/

#include <Arduino.h>
#include <Wire.h>

//#define DEBUG // remove debug so pin 0 and 1 can be used for IO

#define I2C_ADDRESS 8

void onRequest();
void onReceive(int);

void setup()
{
#ifdef DEBUG
  Serial.begin(115200);
  Serial.println(F("Init "));
#endif

  analogReference(INTERNAL);

  Wire.begin(I2C_ADDRESS);
  Wire.onRequest(onRequest);
  Wire.onReceive(onReceive);

#ifdef DEBUG
  Serial.println(F("Wire ok"));
#endif
}

void loop()
{
  //int temp = analogRead(A1);
  //Serial.println(temp);
}

volatile byte buffer[3];
volatile byte len = 1;

#define DIGITAL_READ(b, pin, mask) \
  if (digitalRead(pin))            \
    buffer[b] |= mask;

void readDigital()
{
  len = 3;
  buffer[0] = 0;
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 0, 1);
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 1, 2);
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 2, 4);
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 3, 8);
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 4, 16);
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 5, 32);
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 6, 64);
  DIGITAL_READ(0, 7, 128);

  buffer[1] = 0;
  DIGITAL_READ(1, 8, 1);
  DIGITAL_READ(1, 9, 2);
  DIGITAL_READ(1, 10, 4);
  DIGITAL_READ(1, 11, 8);
  DIGITAL_READ(1, 12, 16);
  DIGITAL_READ(1, 13, 32);
  DIGITAL_READ(1, A0, 64);
  DIGITAL_READ(1, A1, 128);

  buffer[2] = 0;
  DIGITAL_READ(2, A2, 1);
  DIGITAL_READ(2, A3, 2);

// I2C
//DIGITAL_READ(2, A4, 4);
//DIGITAL_READ(2, A5, 8);

// DIGITAL READ not supports on A3 .. A7
#ifdef DEBUG_READ
  Serial.print(F("Read 3 bytes: "));
  Serial.print(buffer[0]);
  Serial.print(' ');
  Serial.print(buffer[1]);
  Serial.print(' ');
  Serial.println(buffer[2]);

#endif
}
void readAnalog(int pin)
{
  int val = analogRead(A0 + pin);
  len = 2;
  buffer[0] = val & 0xFF;
  buffer[1] = (val >> 8) & 0b11;
#ifdef DEBUG_READ
  Serial.print(F("Read analog pin "));
  Serial.println(pin);
#endif
}

void onRequest()
{
  Wire.write(const_cast<uint8_t *>(buffer), len);
}

#define CMD_DIGITAL_READ 0x0

#define CMD_WRITE_ANALOG 0x2
#define CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_HIGH 0x3
#define CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_LOW 0x4

#define CMD_SETUP_PIN_OUTPUT 0x5
#define CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT_PULLUP 0x6
#define CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT 0x7

// 8 analog registers.. A0 to A7
// A4 and A5 not supported due to I2C
#define CMD_ANALOG_READ_A0 0b1000 // 0x8
// ....
#define CMD_ANALOG_READ_A7 0b1111 // 0xF

#define CMD_SETUP_ANALOG_INTERNAL 0x10
#define CMD_SETUP_ANALOG_DEFAULT 0x11

void onReceive(int numBytes)
{
#ifdef DEBUG_READ
  Serial.print("Received bytes: ");
  Serial.println(numBytes);
#endif
  int cmd = Wire.read();

  switch (cmd)
  {
  case CMD_DIGITAL_READ:
    readDigital();
    break;
  }

  if (cmd >= CMD_ANALOG_READ_A0 && cmd <= CMD_ANALOG_READ_A7)
  {
    readAnalog(cmd & 0b111);
    return;
  }

  int pin = Wire.read();

  switch (cmd)
  {
  case CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_HIGH:
  case CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_LOW:
  {
    bool output = cmd == CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_HIGH;
    digitalWrite(pin, output);
#ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.print(F("Pin "));
    Serial.print(pin);
    Serial.println(output ? F(" HIGH") : F(" LOW"));
#endif
    break;
  }
  case CMD_WRITE_ANALOG:
  {
    int val = Wire.read() & (Wire.read() << 8);
    analogWrite(pin, val);
#ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.print(F("Pin "));
    Serial.print(pin);
    Serial.print(F(" Analog write "));
    Serial.println(val);
#endif
    break;
  }
  case CMD_SETUP_PIN_OUTPUT:
    pinMode(pin, OUTPUT);
#ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.print(F("Pin "));
    Serial.print(pin);
    Serial.println(F(" OUTPUT"));
#endif
    break;
  case CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT:
    pinMode(pin, INPUT);
#ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.print(F("Pin "));
    Serial.print(pin);
    Serial.println(F("INPUT"));
#endif
    break;
  case CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT_PULLUP:
    pinMode(pin, INPUT_PULLUP);
#ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.print(F("Pin "));
    Serial.print(pin);
    Serial.println(F("INPUT PULLUP"));
#endif
    break;
  case CMD_SETUP_ANALOG_INTERNAL:
    analogReference(INTERNAL);
#ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.println(F("Analog reference INTERNAL"));
#endif
    break;
  case CMD_SETUP_ANALOG_DEFAULT:
    analogReference(DEFAULT);
#ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.println(F("Analog reference DEFAULT"));
#endif
    break;
  }
}

The following C header file needs to be uploaded to your Home Assistant ESPHome folder.

// Must disable logging if using logging in main.cpp or in other custom components for the
//  __c causes a section type conflict with __c thingy
// you can enable logging and use it if you enable this in logger:
/*
logger:
  level: DEBUG
  esp8266_store_log_strings_in_flash: False
  */

//#define APE_LOGGING

// take advantage of LOG_ defines to decide which code to include
#ifdef LOG_BINARY_OUTPUT
#define APE_BINARY_OUTPUT
#endif
#ifdef LOG_BINARY_SENSOR
#define APE_BINARY_SENSOR
#endif
#ifdef LOG_SENSOR
#define APE_SENSOR
#endif

static const char *TAGape = "ape";

#define APE_CMD_DIGITAL_READ 0
#define APE_CMD_WRITE_ANALOG 2
#define APE_CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_HIGH 3
#define APE_CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_LOW 4
#define APE_CMD_SETUP_PIN_OUTPUT 5
#define APE_CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT_PULLUP 6
#define APE_CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT 7
// 8 analog registers.. A0 to A7
// A4 and A5 not supported due to I2C
#define CMD_ANALOG_READ_A0 0b1000 // 0x8
// ....
#define CMD_ANALOG_READ_A7 0b1111 // 0xF

#define CMD_SETUP_ANALOG_INTERNAL 0x10
#define CMD_SETUP_ANALOG_DEFAULT 0x11

#define get_ape(constructor) static_cast<ArduinoPortExpander *>(constructor.get_component(0))

#define ape_binary_output(ape, pin) get_ape(ape)->get_binary_output(pin)
#define ape_binary_sensor(ape, pin) get_ape(ape)->get_binary_sensor(pin)
#define ape_analog_input(ape, pin) get_ape(ape)->get_analog_input(pin)

class ArduinoPortExpander;

using namespace esphome;

#ifdef APE_BINARY_OUTPUT
class ApeBinaryOutput : public output::BinaryOutput
{
public:
  ApeBinaryOutput(ArduinoPortExpander *parent, uint8_t pin)
  {
    this->parent_ = parent;
    this->pin_ = pin;
  }
  void write_state(bool state) override;
  uint8_t get_pin() { return this->pin_; }

protected:
  ArduinoPortExpander *parent_;
  uint8_t pin_;
  // Pins are setup as output after the state is written, Arduino has no open drain outputs, after setting an output it will either sink or source thus activating outputs writen to false during a flick.
  bool setup_{true};
  bool state_{false};

  friend class ArduinoPortExpander;
};
#endif

#ifdef APE_BINARY_SENSOR
class ApeBinarySensor : public binary_sensor::BinarySensor
{
public:
  ApeBinarySensor(ArduinoPortExpander *parent, uint8_t pin)
  {
    this->pin_ = pin;
  }
  uint8_t get_pin() { return this->pin_; }

protected:
  uint8_t pin_;
};
#endif

#ifdef APE_SENSOR
class ApeAnalogInput : public sensor::Sensor
{
public:
  ApeAnalogInput(ArduinoPortExpander *parent, uint8_t pin)
  {
    this->pin_ = pin;
  }
  uint8_t get_pin() { return this->pin_; }

protected:
  uint8_t pin_;
};
#endif

class ArduinoPortExpander : public Component, public I2CDevice
{
public:
  ArduinoPortExpander(I2CBus *bus, uint8_t address, bool vref_default = false)
  {
    set_i2c_address(address);
    set_i2c_bus(bus);
    this->vref_default_ = vref_default;
  }
  void setup() override
  {
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
    ESP_LOGCONFIG(TAGape, "Setting up ArduinoPortExpander at %#02x ...", address_);
#endif

    /* We cannot setup as usual as arduino boots later than esp8266
            Poll i2c bus for our Arduino for a n seconds instead of failing fast,
            also this is important as pin setup (INPUT_PULLUP, OUTPUT it's done once)
        */
    this->configure_timeout_ = millis() + 5000;
  }
  void loop() override
  {
    if (millis() < this->configure_timeout_)
    {
      bool try_configure = millis() % 100 > 50;
      if (try_configure == this->configure_)
        return;
      this->configure_ = try_configure;

      if (ERROR_OK == this->read_register(APE_CMD_DIGITAL_READ, const_cast<uint8_t *>(this->read_buffer_), 3))
      {
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
        ESP_LOGCONFIG(TAGape, "ArduinoPortExpander found at %#02x", address_);
#endif
        delay(10);
        if (this->vref_default_)
        {
          this->write_register(CMD_SETUP_ANALOG_DEFAULT, nullptr, 0); // 0: unused
        }

        // Config success
        this->configure_timeout_ = 0;
        this->status_clear_error();
#ifdef APE_BINARY_SENSOR
        for (ApeBinarySensor *pin : this->input_pins_)
        {
          App.feed_wdt();
          uint8_t pinNo = pin->get_pin();
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
          ESP_LOGCONFIG(TAGape, "Setup input pin %d", pinNo);
#endif
          this->write_register(APE_CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT_PULLUP, &pinNo, 1);
          delay(20);
        }
#endif
#ifdef APE_BINARY_OUTPUT
        for (ApeBinaryOutput *output : this->output_pins_)
        {
          if (!output->setup_)
          { // this output has a valid value already
            this->write_state(output->pin_, output->state_, true);
            App.feed_wdt();
            delay(20);
          }
        }
#endif
#ifdef APE_SENSOR
        for (ApeAnalogInput *sensor : this->analog_pins_)
        {
          App.feed_wdt();
          uint8_t pinNo = sensor->get_pin();
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
          ESP_LOGCONFIG(TAGape, "Setup analog input pin %d", pinNo);
#endif
          this->write_register(APE_CMD_SETUP_PIN_INPUT, &pinNo, 1);
          delay(20);
        }
#endif
        return;
      }
      // Still not answering
      return;
    }
    if (this->configure_timeout_ != 0 && millis() > this->configure_timeout_)
    {
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
      ESP_LOGE(TAGape, "ArduinoPortExpander NOT found at %#02x", address_);
#endif
      this->mark_failed();
      return;
    }

#ifdef APE_BINARY_SENSOR
    if (ERROR_OK != this->read_register(APE_CMD_DIGITAL_READ, const_cast<uint8_t *>(this->read_buffer_), 3))
    {
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
      ESP_LOGE(TAGape, "Error reading. Reconfiguring pending.");
#endif
      this->status_set_error();
      this->configure_timeout_ = millis() + 5000;
      return;
    }
    for (ApeBinarySensor *pin : this->input_pins_)
    {
      uint8_t pinNo = pin->get_pin();

      uint8_t bit = pinNo % 8;
      uint8_t value = pinNo < 8 ? this->read_buffer_[0] : pinNo < 16 ? this->read_buffer_[1] : this->read_buffer_[2];
      bool ret = value & (1 << bit);
      if (this->initial_state_)
        pin->publish_initial_state(ret);
      else
        pin->publish_state(ret);
    }
#endif
#ifdef APE_SENSOR
    for (ApeAnalogInput *pin : this->analog_pins_)
    {
      uint8_t pinNo = pin->get_pin();
      pin->publish_state(analogRead(pinNo));
    }
#endif
    this->initial_state_ = false;
  }

#ifdef APE_SENSOR
  uint16_t analogRead(uint8_t pin)
  {
    bool ok = (ERROR_OK == this->read_register((uint8_t)(CMD_ANALOG_READ_A0 + pin), const_cast<uint8_t *>(this->read_buffer_), 2));
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
    ESP_LOGVV(TAGape, "analog read pin: %d ok: %d byte0: %d byte1: %d", pin, ok, this->read_buffer_[0], this->read_buffer_[1]);
#endif
    uint16_t value = this->read_buffer_[0] | ((uint16_t)this->read_buffer_[1] << 8);
    return value;
  }
#endif

#ifdef APE_BINARY_OUTPUT
  output::BinaryOutput *get_binary_output(uint8_t pin)
  {
    ApeBinaryOutput *output = new ApeBinaryOutput(this, pin);
    output_pins_.push_back(output);
    return output;
  }
#endif
#ifdef APE_BINARY_SENSOR
  binary_sensor::BinarySensor *get_binary_sensor(uint8_t pin)
  {
    ApeBinarySensor *binarySensor = new ApeBinarySensor(this, pin);
    input_pins_.push_back(binarySensor);
    return binarySensor;
  }
#endif
#ifdef APE_SENSOR
  sensor::Sensor *get_analog_input(uint8_t pin)
  {
    ApeAnalogInput *input = new ApeAnalogInput(this, pin);
    analog_pins_.push_back(input);
    return input;
  }
#endif
  void write_state(uint8_t pin, bool state, bool setup = false)
  {
    if (this->configure_timeout_ != 0)
      return;
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
    ESP_LOGD(TAGape, "Writing %d to pin %d", state, pin);
#endif
    this->write_register(state ? APE_CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_HIGH : APE_CMD_WRITE_DIGITAL_LOW, &pin, 1);
    if (setup)
    {
      App.feed_wdt();
      delay(20);
#ifdef APE_LOGGING
      ESP_LOGI(TAGape, "Setup output pin %d", pin);
#endif
      this->write_register(APE_CMD_SETUP_PIN_OUTPUT, &pin, 1);
    }
  }

protected:
  bool configure_{true};
  bool initial_state_{true};
  uint8_t read_buffer_[3]{0, 0, 0};
  unsigned long configure_timeout_{5000};
  bool vref_default_{false};

#ifdef APE_BINARY_OUTPUT
  std::vector<ApeBinaryOutput *> output_pins_;
#endif
#ifdef APE_BINARY_SENSOR
  std::vector<ApeBinarySensor *> input_pins_;
#endif
#ifdef APE_SENSOR
  std::vector<ApeAnalogInput *> analog_pins_;
#endif
};

#ifdef APE_BINARY_OUTPUT
void ApeBinaryOutput::write_state(bool state)
{
  this->state_ = state;
  this->parent_->write_state(this->pin_, state, this->setup_);
  this->setup_ = false;
}
#endif

The file should be named “arduino_port_expander.h”

Make the following changes to your ESPHome YAML configuration file for the MCU-8266-12E device

esphome:
  name: mcu-8266-12e-01
  platform: ESP8266
  board: nodemcuv2
  includes:
      - arduino_port_expander.h
# Note the include file - This loads the APE Header

# Enable logging
logger:

# Enable Home Assistant API
api:

ota:
  password: "<your password will be different - dont change it>"

wifi:
  ssid: <your ssid>
  password: <your password>

  # Enable fallback hotspot (captive portal) in case wifi connection fails
  ap:
    ssid: "MCU-8266-Hotspot"
    password: "password"

captive_portal:

i2c:
# PCB Prototype
  sda: GPIO5
  scl: GPIO4
# PCB Rev 1.5 or higher, comment the above 2 lines
# and uncomment
#sda: GPIO4
#scl: GPIO5
#################### - IMPORTANT ###########
  scan: true
  id: i2c_bus_a
  
pcf8574:
  - id: 'pcf8574_hub'
    address: 0x22 # Set at 0x22, feel free to change to your liking, Remember to set the chip to the address you choose as well
    pcf8575: false

time:
  - platform: sntp
    id: ha_time
    timezone: "Etc/GMT+7"

status_led:
  pin:
    number: GPIO16
    inverted: true

#Define the APE as a custom component, taking care to ensure that:
#1). The I2C Bust ID is the same as the one you have defined in the I2C: Section
#2). The address of the APE is the same as the one you set in the sketch
    
custom_component:
  - id: ape
    lambda: |-
      auto ape_component = new ArduinoPortExpander(i2c_bus_a, 0x08,true);
      return {ape_component};
    

sensor:

  - platform: custom
    lambda: |-
      return {ape_analog_input(ape, 0),  // 1 = A1
             ape_analog_input(ape, 1),
             ape_analog_input(ape, 2)};
   
#We define 3 analog inputs (A0,A1,A2) to monitor voltages on the card
#Note that you MUST define them in the sensors section below as well AND
#THAT THEY MUST BE IN THE SAME SEQUENCE THAT YOU DEFINED THEM IN ABOVE HERE
#
#ALSO NOTE THAT YOU CAN "NOT" use A4 and A5, as they are used for I2C !
#
# As an example, of adding another 3 analog inputs, your definition above will change to:
#
#    return {ape_analog_input(ape, 0),
#           ape_analog_input(ape, 1),
#           ape_analog_input(ape, 2),
#           ape_analog_input(ape, 3),
#           ape_analog_input(ape, 6),
#           ape_analog_input(ape, 7)};
#
#
# Now define the sensors connected to these analogs below:

             
    sensors:
      - name: "PE Card VIN"
        id: analog_a0
        device_class: "voltage"
        unit_of_measurement: "v"
        accuracy_decimals: 2
        filters:
          - lambda: return x * (22.00/1023.0);
          - throttle: 60s

# We use a lambda to scale the value of VIN - Our Voltage divider was designed around 22 volt
# thus we need 22 volt here in the calculation as well to make it accurate
#
      - name: "PE Card 5v"
        id: analog_a1
        device_class: "voltage"
        unit_of_measurement: "v"
        accuracy_decimals: 2
        filters:
          - lambda: return x * (5.02/1023.0); 
          - throttle: 60s
      - name: "PE Card 3v"
        id: analog_a2
        device_class: "voltage"
        unit_of_measurement: "v"
        accuracy_decimals: 2
        filters:
          - lambda: return x * (5.02/1023.0);
          - throttle: 60s
 
# The ATMega328P 's Analog Reference is set to 5v internally, thus we need to also scale the 
# 3v input with a maximum of 5v ... 

# In case you enabled the other 3 Analog Inputs above, you need to add the following
#
#    - name: "Analog 3"
#      id: analog_a3
#      filters:
#        - throttle: 60s
#    - name: "Analog 6"
#      id: analog_a6
#      filters:
#        - throttle: 60s
#    - name: "Analog 7"
#      id: analog_a7
#      filters:
#        - throttle: 60s
#
#
             
             
             
  - platform: adc
    pin: VCC
    name: "ESP8266 Chip Voltage"
    id: mcu_voltage
    unit_of_measurement: "V"
    device_class: "voltage"
    accuracy_decimals: 2
    update_interval: 60s
    
  - platform: wifi_signal
    name: "WiFi Signal Sensor"
    id: wifi_strength
    device_class: "signal_strength"
    unit_of_measurement: "dBm"
    update_interval: 240s
    

#Digital outputs function the same

output:
- platform: custom
  type: binary
  lambda: |-
    return {ape_binary_output(ape, 2),
            ape_binary_output(ape, 3),
            ape_binary_output(ape, 4),
            ape_binary_output(ape, 5),
            ape_binary_output(ape, 6),
            ape_binary_output(ape, 7)};
  outputs:
    - id: ape_output_p2
      inverted: false
    - id: ape_output_p3
      inverted: false
    - id: ape_output_p4
      inverted: false
    - id: ape_output_p5
      inverted: false
    - id: ape_output_p6
      inverted: false
    - id: ape_output_p7
      inverted: false
      
- platform: gpio
  id: relay_1
  pin:
    pcf8574: pcf8574_hub
    number: 0
    mode: OUTPUT
    inverted: true
- platform: gpio
  id: relay_2
  pin:
    pcf8574: pcf8574_hub
    number: 1
    mode: OUTPUT
    inverted: true
- platform: gpio
  id: led_status_1
  pin:
    pcf8574: pcf8574_hub
    number: 2
    mode: OUTPUT
    inverted: true
- platform: gpio
  id: led_status_2
  pin:
    pcf8574: pcf8574_hub
    number: 3
    mode: OUTPUT
    inverted: true
      
binary_sensor:
  - platform: gpio
    id: push_button_1
    name: 'Relay1 Pushbutton'
    device_class: ''
    pin: 
      pcf8574: pcf8574_hub
      number: 4
      mode: INPUT
      inverted: true
    on_press:
      then:
        - switch.toggle: switch_relay1
        
  - platform: gpio
    id: push_button_2
    name: 'Relay2 Pushbutton'
    device_class: ''
    pin:
      pcf8574: pcf8574_hub
      number: 5
      mode: INPUT
      inverted: true
    on_press:
      #min_length: 50ms
      #max_length: 500ms
      then:
        - switch.toggle: switch_relay2
    filters:
        - delayed_on_off: 50ms
      
  

switch:
  - platform: output
    id: switch_relay1
    name: "Relay No. 1 (#0)"
    output: relay_1
    on_turn_on:
      - output.turn_on: led_status_1
    on_turn_off:
      - output.turn_off: led_status_1
      
  - platform: output
    id: switch_relay2
    name: "Relay No. 2 (#1)"
    output: relay_2
    on_turn_on:
      - output.turn_on: led_status_2
    on_turn_off:
      - output.turn_off: led_status_2
  - platform: restart
    id: reboot_switch
    name: "Reboot Me"

Detailed information on the APE is available here

Manufacturing the PCB

This PCB was manufactured at PCBWAY. The Gerber files and BOM, as well as all the schematics, will soon be available as a shared project on their website. If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

ATMega328P prototype add-on card for use with the MCU-8266-12E IoT controller.

In August of 2021, MakerIoT2020 released the MCU-8266-12E IoT Controller PCB, (part 1 is available here in case you missed that). Shortly after that, we started working on an expansion add-on card, that would work with the APE (Arduino Port Expander) protocol in ESPHome.

While I could have used a standard Arduino board for this, and in fact, I have done so during many of the testing stages,
I decided to design a custom PCB specifically for this task, in order to achieve two specific things…

1). The standard Arduino Board comes in either a 5v logic or 3v logic device. While this is perfect for many projects,
it is still sometimes required to use a logic level converter with some sensors and devices. LORA is a good example of that. As I really dislike using a breadboard, due to their inherent unreliable connections and the ever-present mess of wires going everywhere, I wanted an Arduino or ATMEGA328 based device that already has a level converter built-in.

As I could not find anything like that for sale, I decided to build my own, as you will see shortly.

2). I wanted to start moving away from using the Arduino IDE as much as possible. While the Arduino IDE is great for most tasks, It does lack in a few areas. I thus want to slowly ease myself back into using AVR C, and that requires a board that can be flashed via ICSP. ( yes, yes, you can flash an Arduino with ICSP as well. ) In the case of the planned expansion card, it would basically be a device that is flashed once and then left alone. Serial flashing would be quite unnecessary on there anyway.

The other reason, still part of point 2, is that it seems like everyone else is having all sorts of problems with fuses on the ATMega328 on custom boards etc… I wanted to see if that is really the case or not…

The PCB should also be useable as a standard “Arduino” type device to assist in prototyping and development.

ATMega328P Custom PCB – as a prototype add-on card to the MCU-8266-12E IoT controller

a Quick description of the PCB:

Standard Arduino type headers and pins are provided, with pin labels as for the Arduino Nano.
This gives us:

ATMega 328P MCU running at 16Mhz
12 Digital IO (D2 to D13) [ 14 if we use D1 and D2 as well ]
8 Analog Inputs (A0 to A7) [ A4 and A5 are used for I2C ]
ICSP header for uploading code
USB Port with CH340G for Arduino style serial flashing [This will be removed on the next version]
A Dedicated LDO 3.3v Voltage regulator, with a selectable input source (5v from USB, or directly from VIN – for high current use applications – MAX of 800mA)

An 8 Channel Bi-Directional Logic Level Converter, for now, the converter is fixed at bi-directional 3v to 5v conversion.
Additional 5v (x4), 3v (x4) and Ground pins (x8), as well as 2 general use bus connections (G1, G2) which I added for use with I2C

Led’s are provided on 5v, 3v, Serial Rx, Tx, as well as on pin D13.

Dimensions: 86mm x 51mm

Assembly – During Reflow on a hotplate.
During Reflow

Manufacturing the PCB

This PCB was manufactured at PCBWAY. The Gerber files and BOM, as well as all the schematics, will soon be available as a shared project on their website. If you would like to have PCBWAY manufacture one of your own, designs, or even this particular PCB, you need to do the following…
1) Click on this link
2) Create an account if you have not already got one of your own.
If you use the link above, you will also instantly receive a $5USD coupon, which you can use on your first or any other order later. (Disclaimer: I will earn a small referral fee from PCBWay. This referral fee will not affect the cost of your order, nor will you pay any part thereof.)
3) Once you have gone to their website, and created an account, or login with your existing account,

4) Click on PCB Instant Quote

5) If you do not have any very special requirements for your PCB, click on Quick-order PCB

6) Click on Add Gerber File, and select your Gerber file(s) from your computer. Most of your PCB details will now be automatically selected, leaving you to only select the solder mask and silk-screen colour, as well as to remove the order number or not. You can of course fine-tune everything exactly as you want as well.

7) You can also select whether you want an SMD stencil, or have the board assembled after manufacturing. Please note that the assembly service, as well as the cost of your components, ARE NOT included in the initial quoted price. ( The quote will update depending on what options you select ).

8) When you are happy with the options that you have selected, you can click on the Save to Cart Button. From here on, you can go to the top of the screen, click on Cart, make any payment(s) or use any coupons that you have in your account.

Then just sit back and wait for your new PCB to be delivered to your door via the shipping company that you have selected during checkout.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the PCB works quite well, with no issues with flashing the ATMEGA328P with an ICSP programmer from the Arduino IDE, as well as via USB from the Arduino IDE.

The level converter works as expected, successfully translating bidirectional signals on I2C and SPI to and from 3v and 5v devices.

In the next stage, we will focus on the stock APE protocol sketch, as provided by ESPHome, and then, once that is working perfectly, modify it to suit our needs.